Showing posts with label Socratic dialogue. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Socratic dialogue. Show all posts

Friday, November 16, 2018

Examples of a Socratic Dialogue in Islam

What could a Socratic dialogue about Qur’an al Kerim sound like? Here follow three small examples of such possible Q/A-conversation. We may call it a Socratic dialogue. Start easiest:

A: What is man’s main task in life?
B: To serve Allah swt.
A: Firstly, what is serving?
B: It is performing actions to please the one who is being served.
A: Why is it necessary to serve Allah swt?
B: A believer loves Allah swt and wants to reach His reward
A: If there would be no reward, would you still find it necessary to love Allah swt?
B: Yes. Loving Him for Him alone, is part of serving Him, and serving Him is done out of love.
A: What is love for a Muslim, try and describe it please.
B: Love is not just a positive caring emotion for someone or something, it’s also an action.
A: What action?
B: Caring and sharing. You do nice things for them that they like.
A: How do you care and share for, with Allah swt?
B: You do the things that He asks in His Book.
A: What things?
B: You pray, perform the other rituals, you do good works.
A: Tell us something of these good works. What good works do you do out of love for Allah swt?
B: Me? I do my best to treat other people, animals and other creatures well; I pray to Allah swt.
A: Why is it necessary to treat others well out of love for Allah swt, is it not enough to do it for them?
B: Allah swt wants us to be caretakers of His creation, it is part of our duty to Him.
A: Now I look into your Qur’an. What doest ALM mean?
B: No-one knows, they are just letters.
A: Why are they there?
B: It is said that they are meant as a sign that man doesn’t know everything and He does.
A: What do you say they mean?
B: I say that it is not allowed to speculate on things we don’t know.
C comes in now: We should leave it to the scholars, they have better knowledge, also of things with double and obscure meanings.
A: Who says that you and I are ignorant, or uneducated?
C: You didn’t study fiqh.
A: Can you prove or assess my credentials?
B: Every believer has the duty to find knowledge, even if it were in China.
A: So is it allowed to search and share knowledge?
B: Yes, but you must back up your statements with evidence.
A: Did any scholar know the exact meaning of ALM?
B: I don’t thinks so.
C: 'Thinking' isn't yet 'knowing'. Always keep that in mind.
A: Is it allowed to form your own opinion on three letters?
B: As long as you make clear that it is your opinion, why not.
A: Must you ask consent to think and speak at all?
B: I'd say, it isn't necessary, because people are allowed to mutually consult.

Second level:

A: 'And tell the believing women to lower their gaze and be modest, and to display of their adornment only that which is apparent' What is 'apparent' here, in Kabul, may be different in Cairo or Washington. So, women have freedom of choice, as to what they wear?
B: No, because Rasulullah said, that a woman may only display her face and hands.
A: That still leaves her freedom of choice, whether she wears trousers, dresses, skirts, yes or no coat, a cap, or a hat and shawl, in whatever color or fabric she wants.
B: Euhm... no, because Rasulullah has said, that the fabric may not be transparent or brightly colored.
A: Still -- she can choose whatever style she wants.
B: I see your point, she has perhaps more freedom than that some people say.
A: But, there is no compulsion in religion. So, she is free whatever she wants anyway.
B: On the one hand -- yes; on the other hand, no. If she wants to be a Muslim in the real sense of the word, she is eager to fulfil the Prophet's word.
A: But, the Prophet said, if the faithful are, at least, able to eagerly say Shahada, then the rest is less important. What's in your heart, counts most. Rules are extra. I read that in ahadith.
B: Yes, but if you're too easy with yourself, you may loose your religion, discipline, good effort. Qur'an al Kerim says, that the faithful must compete in good deeds.
A: Then, why is using your freedom no good deed? Maybe, in the eyes of Allah SWT, using your freedom is a sign of taking good initiative, and is any alternative no second hand bargain. What do you know?
B: You think I didn't know that? Why do you think, more freedom of dress is restored now, in Kabul?
A: So, why talk bad about women who take their freedom?
B: Indeed that's haram, but giving them feedback in person, is good thing. You must help others.

Third level:

A: You can't prove, Qur'an al Kerim is the book of Allah and we can't prove, there is a God.
B: Yes, you can. The whole system of the universe is too complex, ingenuous and consistent to be just haphazard arrivals. There is obviously something or someone who mastered it out, but we just can't see it from here.
A: That's no proof.
B: Why not. Qur'an says, we don't know what Allah looks like, or how Allah functions. So, why not just drop the chase. His works are visible enough.
A: That's weak, and you it.
B: On the contrary, and #you know that. Sometimes, a building, mountain or object is too big for you to see. You just see little bits of it. And, that's only a building, mountain or object. You know you are in Kabul, but can you see all of it? Allah is way bigger for your eye to behold. You can't just take distance, travel, and then hope to see Him. The problem is lack of humility and acceptance, for many people. They see themselves too big.
A: Why isn't Qur'an al Kerim just another fairytale book, invented by someone?
B: Because many verses are true in the laws of nature, which people didn't know at the time.
A: The Greeks, the Persians, the Chinese, Indians: They knew. The Prophet used their works.
B: It's your turn to prove that, now.
A: Can you actually prove, the Prophet received revelations, that indeed he was illiterate?
B: There have been many, many witnesses. Their testimonies are well-documented.
A: Are these writing objective enough? They were written down in their own community.
B: But, the best writings were written down by foreigners. Outsiders. Yes, Muslim outsiders. And, history everywhere is mostly written down by people from their own community. American history was written by American historians and no one contests their reliability. Only now, in the internet era, we also see testimonies of their probable opponents. Why would Rasulullah's reporters be more untrustworthy or unobjective than historians elsewhere? Can you give any #good proof?



Thursday, November 15, 2018

Socratic Dialogue: Is It Possible In Islam?

Socrate has abandoned philosophy of nature, as practised by many of his fellow Greek thinkers. In his view, it is best to not dwell on those phenomenons we can't explain anyway, such as explaining what stars are; what is night and day, how it's come into existence. His people didn't possess the tools and equipment, yet, to travel far, or look at small particles and cells. Socrate found it good enough to perfect human life, morality, politics, present living conditions, economics, and how to improve and embellish these, now. This is only possible as a result of reason and dialogue. It is necessary to think and exchange views about the important aspect of human life, in order to reach personal perfection, and a good system for society. In later days, western culture has differentiated between natural science, which is about explaining objective and proven facts, and philosophy in the sense as Socrate has meant it: A rational exercise about other aspects of life, where objectivity may not come first. Aspects as human living conditions, beauty, morality, politics, economics, peace, religion. Natural Science and technology are seen as necessary to support other aspects of life, because they are objective and beyond questioning, and because they provide tools for living. But, even they, aren't ways to one ultimate truth.

Islam, has tried to combine natural science, philosophy of nature, and ethical intellectualism, with some rules and boundaries, to make a fair play possible. Investigating a text without immediate aim of giving absolutely true answers, but rather aiming to approach an issue from several angles and then encouraging use of logic and exchanging different views, can be a good approach towards better understanding Qur’an al Kerim. The ultimate aim is to come to truth, within natural limitations set forth by Allah SWT. 'People who think' will notice, that not everything is possible, even after the most excellent technology has been explored. Ultimate possibility, has been ordained by the creator of everything: Allah SWT. And, even Allah SWT is bound to absolute truths. 'Thinking' and 'mutual consultation' are encouraged. It is, however, not encouraged to make severe conflict about the 'ambiguous' verses in Qur'an. Ambiguous verses are those with, to us, incomprehensible or multiple meanings. Fighting about ambiguity, is seen as a sign of disbelief or injustice. It is not allowed in Islam, to invent or phantasize things, that clearly aren't there, or can't be perceived. It is allowed to phantasize about them, as long as we're clear about them being our own opinion, and as long as we are kind to those who disagree with us. There's a point, where Islam and Socrate diverge: Islam does believe in an ultimate truth. However, this truth may not be perceivable to humans. As not all truth is perceivable to humans, humans are allowed many freedoms of thinking and believing, as long as they do not lie, or oppress dissident thinkers. If opponents don't harm others, then let them. Discuss with others, is okay, but it may cause spiritual or religious harm to yourself. That is your problem, and not of a government censor. Censorship, isn't necessary anyway, because there's freedom of thought and no compulsion in religion. Because we can't observe Allah SWT, we can't legally enforce people to believe in Him. Many aspects of life are ambiguous, or lead to more than one way. Those very same people may be wrong about one aspect of truth, yet, they may be very truthful about another aspect of truth. Truth is a big thing, as big as the universe, with many facets. That's why, in Islam we must live by this rule: Live and let live, in honesty, humility, and tolerance -- until life has been made impossible by oppressors, or by natural impossibility.

Perhaps, Socratic dialogue is not the first way to understand most ahadith, as these transmit very specific sayings, actions and decisions of the Prophet saws. And, many scholars have classified and interpreted them and channeled them into jurisprudence. That doesn’t mean, it isn't allowed. There's some etiquette involved, however. You want a discussion with knowledgeable Muslims? Then, respect their privacy, safety, and personal lives. Discussions about philosophy and the meaning of life tend to take place in informal surroundings, among friends and relatives. And, Qur'an al Kerim was revealed exactly in answer to prevailing questions that people may have. Having said that, it is allowed to ask those who may have knowledge, any question. There are no inferior questions, nor inferior information seekers. The first 12 verses of Surah 80 mention a blind man who asked the Prophet questions, but the Prophet initially dismissed him. The verses, however, exhorted to answer questions. Furthermore, we live in a time where technology has changed living conditions and has literally shrunk distance between people globally. Another aspect is, that Islam was absent in many government systems, during the colonial era. So, it is possible, to look at ahadith from a fresh philosophical and legal perspective, without immediately ending up with untruth.

All the same. As Muslims, we receive the questions. Not just about what Islam is, but also the more fundamental questions, of why you should believe; if you 'have to' believe and if yes, then why. And more specific questions about certain verses, especially those that may offer more possible answers. We'd like to counter them with relevance and wit, if possible. And, we'd like to pose our own questions. To non-Muslims and other Muslims alike. So, why not exercise in Socratic dialogue? Socrate offered here a methodology, not a full philosophical or religious theory. A discussion method is neutral and doesn't clash with other religion.




Some applicable Qur'anic verses:
2:255-258; 3:7-8; 3:200; 5:100-102; 10:18-20; 16:4-11; 24:58,59,61; 55:33; 60:5-9; 64:2-3; 67:3; 80:1-12; 112:1-4.

'Allah! There is no God save Him, the Alive, the Eternal. Neither slumber nor sleep overtaketh Him. Unto Him belongeth whatsoever is in the heavens and whatsoever is in the earth. Who is he that intercedeth with Him save by His leave? He knoweth that which is in front of them and that which is behind them, while they encompass nothing of His knowledge save what He will. His throne includeth the heavens and the earth, and He is never weary of preserving them. He is the Sublime, the Tremendous. (255) There is no compulsion in religion. The right direction is henceforth distinct from error. And he who rejecteth false deities and believeth in Allah hath grasped a firm handhold which will never break. Allah is Hearer, Knower. (256) Allah is the Protecting Guardian of those who believe. He bringeth them out of darkness into light. As for those who disbelieve, their patrons are false deities. They bring them out of light into darkness. Such are rightful owners of the Fire. They will abide therein. (257) Bethink thee not of him who had an argument with Abraham about his Lord, because Allah had given him the kingdom; how, when Abraham said: My Lord is He Who giveth life and causeth death, he answered: I give life and cause death. Abraham said: Lo! Allah causeth the sun to rise in the East, so do thou cause it to come up from the West. Thus was the disbeliever abashed. And Allah guideth not wrongdoing folk. (258)' (2:255-258)
'He it is Who hath revealed unto thee (Muhammad) the Scripture wherein are clear revelations - they are the substance of the Book - and others (which are) allegorical. But those in whose hearts is doubt pursue, forsooth, that which is allegorical seeking (to cause) dissension by seeking to explain it. None knoweth its explanation save Allah. And those who are of sound instruction say: We believe therein; the whole is from our Lord; but only men of understanding really heed. (7) Our Lord! Cause not our hearts to stray after Thou hast guided us...' (3:7-8)

'O ye who believe! Endure, outdo all others in endurance, be ready, and observe your duty to Allah, in order that ye may succeed. (200)' (3:200)

'Say: The evil and the good are not alike even though the plenty of the evil attract thee. So be mindful of your duty to Allah, O men of understanding, that ye may succeed. (100) O ye who believe! Ask not of things which, if they were made known unto you, would trouble you; but if ye ask of them when the Qur'an is being revealed, they will be made known unto you. Allah pardoneth this, for Allah is Forgiving, Clement. (101) A folk before you asked (for such disclosures) and then disbelieved therein. (102)' (5:100-102)
'They worship besides Allah that which neither hurteth them nor profiteth them, and they say: These are our intercessors with Allah. Say: Would ye inform Allah of (something) that He knoweth not in the heavens or in the earth? Praised be He and high exalted above all that ye associate (with Him)! (18) Mankind were but one community; then they differed; and had it not been for a word that had already gone forth from thy Lord it had been judged between them in respect of that wherein they differ. (19) And they will say: If only a portent were sent down upon him from his Lord! Then say, (O Muhammad): The Unseen belongeth to Allah. So wait! Lo! I am waiting with you. (20)' (10:18-20)

'He hath created man from a drop of fluid, yet behold! he is an open opponent. (4) And the cattle hath He created, whence ye have warm clothing and uses, and whereof ye eat; (5) And wherein is beauty for you, when ye bring them home, and when ye take them out to pasture. (6) And they bear your loads for you unto a land ye could not reach save with great trouble to yourselves. Lo! your Lord is Full of Pity, Merciful. (7) And horses and mules and asses (hath He created) that ye may ride them, and for ornament. And He createth that which ye know not. (8) And Allah's is the direction of the way, and some (roads) go not straight. And had He willed He would have led you all aright. (9) He it is Who sendeth down water from the sky, whence ye have drink, and whence are trees on which ye send your beasts to pasture. (10) Therewith He causeth crops to grow for you, and the olive and the date-palm and grapes and all kinds of fruit. Lo! herein is indeed a portent for people who reflect. (11)' (16:4-11)

'O ye who believe! Let your slaves, and those of you who have not come to puberty, ask leave of you at three times (before they come into your presence): Before the prayer of dawn, and when ye lay aside your raiment for the heat of noon, and after the prayer of night. Three times of privacy for you. It is no sin for them or for you at other times, when some of you go round attendant upon others (if they come into your presence without leave). Thus Allah maketh clear the revelations for you. Allah is Knower, Wise. (58) And when the children among you come to puberty then let them ask leave even as those before them used to ask it. Thus Allah maketh clear His revelations for you. Allah is Knower, Wise. (59) ... No blame is there upon the blind nor any blame upon the lame nor any blame upon the sick nor on yourselves if ye eat from your houses, or the houses of your fathers, or the houses of your mothers, or the houses of your brothers, or the houses of your sisters, or the houses of your fathers' brothers, or the houses of your fathers' sisters, or the houses of your mothers' brothers, or the houses of your mothers' sisters, or (from that) whereof ye hold the keys, or (from the house) of a friend. No sin shall it be for you whether ye eat together or apart. But when ye enter houses, salute one another with a greeting from Allah, blessed and sweet. Thus Allah maketh clear His revelations for you, that haply ye may understand. (61)' (24:58,59,61)
'O Ye who believe! Enter not the dwellings of the Prophet for a meal without waiting for the proper time, unless permission be granted you. But if ye are invited, enter, and, when your meal is ended, then disperse. Linger not for conversation. Lo! that would cause annoyance to the Prophet, and he would be shy of (asking) you (to go); but Allah is not shy of the truth. And when ye ask of them (the wives of the Prophet) anything, ask it of them from behind a curtain. That is purer for your hearts and for their hearts. And it is not for you to cause annoyance to the messenger of Allah, nor that ye should ever marry his wives after him. Lo! that in Allah's sight would be an enormity. (53)' (33:53)
'O ye assembly of Jinns and men! If it be ye can pass beyond the zones of the heavens and the earth, pass ye! Not without authority shall ye be able to pass!' (55:33)
'Our Lord! Make us not a prey for those who disbelieve, and forgive us, our Lord! Lo! Thou, only Thou, are the Mighty, the Wise. (5) Verily ye have in them a goodly pattern for everyone who looketh to Allah and the Last Day. And whosoever may turn away, lo! still Allah, He is the Absolute, the Owner of Praise. (6) It may be that Allah will ordain love between you and those of them with whom ye are at enmity. Allah is Mighty, and Allah is Forgiving, Merciful. (7) Allah forbiddeth you not those who warred not against you on account of religion and drove you not out from your homes, that ye should show them kindness and deal justly with them. Lo! Allah loveth the just dealers. (8) Allah forbiddeth you only those who warred against you on account of religion and have driven you out from your homes and helped to drive you out, that ye make friends of them. Whosoever maketh friends of them - (All) such are wrong-doers. (9)' (60:5-9)

'He it is Who created you, but one of you is a disbeliever and one of you is a believer, and Allah is Seer of what ye do. (2) He created the heavens and the earth with truth, and He shaped you and made good your shapes, and unto Him is the journeying. (3)' (64:2-3)

'He Who created the seven heavens one above another, no want of proportion wilt thou see in the Creation of the Most Gracious. So turn thy vision again: seest thou any flaw?' (67:3)

'He frowned and turned away (1) Because the blind man came unto him. (2) What could inform thee but that he might grow (in grace) (3) Or take heed and so the reminder might avail him? (4) As for him who thinketh himself independent, (5) Unto him thou payest regard. (6) Yet it is not thy concern if he grow not (in grace). (7) But as for him who cometh unto thee with earnest purpose (8) And hath fear, (9) From him thou art distracted. (10) Nay, but verily it is an Admonishment, (11) So let whosoever will pay heed to it, (12)' (80:1-12)

'Say: He is Allah, the One! (1) Allah, the eternally Besought of all! (2) He begetteth not nor was begotten. (3) And there is none comparable unto Him. (4)' (112:1-4)


Sources & further reading:

Monday, November 12, 2018

Socrate & Ethical Intellectualism

socrates-stelt-prangende-vraag
Socrates is the first well-documented Greek philosopher, no thanks to his own writing activity. He is known to have lived from 470 to 399 BC. His student Plato has carefully documented his words and methods. Socrates’ method was a radical breach with the past. Until then, philosophy’s interest was into explaining the cosmos through reason. Philosophers wanted to know our origine and made rational theories on the origin of matter, the celestial bodies and life. Sophism was the first school of thought to bring Greek philosophy to earth and teach people to form themselves a theory, about any topic at all, and propagate it to others with the use of convincing reason. Sophism lifted philosophy to a methodology at professional scholastic level and skipped the in their eyes unanswerable question concerning creation. Socrates was the first to make man center of philosophic interest. The main question for man to solve, is how to live a proper and responsible life. Important knowledge, therefore, is knowledge of man and society. Man has to ask himself firstly: How can you know anything, when you don’t know yourself?’ ‘Know yourself’, 'Gnote Sauton', was his first rule, for other knowledge comes from self-knowledge and who knows you, after all. 'The unexamined life is not worth living'. Wisdom is acquired self-knowledge. An important aspect of that, is knowing your own boundaries: Awareness of your own ignorance and the fields where knowledge is missing. Self-knowledge is the starting and reference point for any other gathering of knowledge. You must ask yourself questions and test the answers’ validity, firstly. Further knowledge comes from communicating with others, as a way to exchange your knowledge with other people’s knowledge. Your and other people’s knowledge must be mirrored and tested on its truthfulness and durability. Socrates' second rule, the Socratic Paradox, was that ‘the only thing I know is that I know nothing’ and from many detailed facts it is possible to work towards knowledge, a search method we call induction. Exchanging and thus gaining knowledge is made possible by asking the right questions through encouragement to carry on or to stop and sideway pushing with the right remarks. Socrates called this communication technique the midwive’s technique, maieutike techne; his mother and wife Xantippe both were midwives. Knowledge, according to Socrates, had to be authentic and his questions were only meant to test the solidity of acquired knowledge. Finding truth is possible by asking the right questions and in the process digging deeper into the subject by a new question following the answer. His technique of questioning people to test their knowledge has become known as the dialectic or Socratic dialogue. Socrates not only teached his students; he could be found in open air, having his dialogue with an audience, too. Socrates’ favorite topics were justice, self restraint, piety, bravery and wisdom. It is possible to find a general truth and ethical standards for human behavior, the ‘essentials’, by research on other people’s knowledge and behavior, and then, gathering the answers.
Through insight and knowledge, it is possible to find virtue, and virtue being a matter of intellect, can be achieved by everyone. This thinking is called ‘ethical intellectualism’. Virtue is not necessarily obedience to a good public rule. Virtue mainly is knowledge. When a person knows and understands what true virtue is, he may act within general principles, instead of self-interest. Socrates tried to make his students aware of their actions being self-interested, even though everybody agrees that the general interest has priority over self-interest. Goodness and virtue aren’t built on nice words by a clever spokesman, but on being shared by everyone. It is at the field of morality, that people have the least self-knowledge. The word-artists (the sophists!) have an easy job here in convincing others of their moral standard. Goodness and virtue come from a life of learning and teaching. Good people never stop learning and studying. Another part goodness is made of, is beauty. Masculine beauty and its benefits, lead to intellectual wisdom; feminine beauty similarly leads to a good body and thus to procreation, according to Socrates.
The ultimate goal of all action, according to Socrates, is finding happiness. If a student has gained enough knowledge of a desired goal, he or she is bound to act virtuously. Incorrect action is a consequence of insufficient knowledge of virtue. Virtue is, for both the state and the individual, the only way to happiness. Socrates did not believe in deliberate evil. Evil action comes from ignorance and everyone at least has the will to find out what is truly good for him or her. Truth is the same as goodness. The state must strive towards justice, not to power and wealth, and knowledge is the only guidance for just actions. Power without knowledge can only lead to unhappiness. ‘Ideals belong in a world only the wise man can understand’. Socrates finds it therefore necessary to elect leaders for their knowledge, not for their wealth of descent, and the ordinary civilian lacks the knowledge to elect competent leaders. Socrates disapproved of any state system, all of them giving no answer to who might possess the most intellectual baggage for leadership. Philosophers should govern the state.
Athens those days experimented with democracy. However, a true democracy, it was not. Women, slaves and foreigners (they might be Greeks from outside Athens) were excluded from the right to vote in the general assembly (the Ekklesia), an institution which existed since it was founded by statesman Clisthenes (ca 570 – 507 BC). Men and women leaded secluded lives and erotic relations between boys and young men were more or less approved of. Finding beauty and wisdom among men, had educational intellectual worth, provided a man was not ‘enslaved’ by his physical ‘passions’. After marriage, men had to find physical beauty in women. Procreation was seen as an important part of that. Homosexual relations among adult men met more disapproval. However, pederastic relations between adult men (eromenos) and boys (erastes) were commonplace and were considered a patronage relation. Nowadays, in modern standards, we would recognize aspects of prostitution in them. Socrates and his students lived in this world and are known to have made approving comments on homosexuality. Sexuality, even masturbation, were displayed more openly in Ancient Greece, than after the arrival of Christianity. Slavery was another part of a natural and ethical world order. A slave could be as noble as a free man, but human relations are naturally determined by dominance; some people are braver and stronger and, therefore, are able to provide patronage to others. In Classical Greece, slavery gained a formal absolute status. Socrates and Aristoteles both made acquiescenting comments on the phenomenon. Freedom of religion only went so far. The state religion allowed for non-dogmatic and equal worship of several deities, mostly ancient traditional deities, among whom important leaders and thinkers, to be allowed into the ‘pantheon’, the temple for all religions. But, it was not allowed to either reject a deity or introduce a new one without official consent, or reject the pantheon itself. Many a philosopher was put to trial and banned or executed. This fate also fell on Socrates. He was accused of rejecting the city’s gods, introducing new deities and rejecting Athens' democratic institutions. Socrates was not a man to run from civil law he had paid allegiance to. As a consistent thinker, he saw it as his moral duty to undergo the verdict, which he could have avoided through many legal channels. So, finally, he was executed.
Socrates’ sayings were recorded by his students, mostly Plato, but also by Xenophon, Aristotle and Aristophanes. It is uncertain, how reliable their accounts are; it is said, that some writings reflect the ideas, admiration or criticism of the authors, rather than Socrates’ exact words.
Also today, universities and institutions in the western world like to work within Socrates' principle. They use his name in their programs. The Socratic dialogue is anything but obsolete. Institutions say, it can bring awareness, that learning should last a lifetime and never finishes -- an attitude greatly appreciated also nowadays. A new aspect, however, is democratisation of knowledge. A quote of a teacher site at Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Universiteit van Amsterdam, and Amsterdam University of Applied Sciences has said: ‘Socratic method is not the art of teaching philosophy, but of teaching how to do philosophy; it's not the art of teaching about philosophers, but to make pupils into philosophers’ (Leonard Nelson) This teacher, Kristof van Rossem, offers training courses in Socratic Dialogues on many institutions over Europe, as many others do. Van Rossem thinks, the Socratic dialogue is a good tool at school, even primary schools, as it stimulates citizenry in young people: A good citizen actively participates in a society based on knowledge and professionalism. A teacher as leader of a Socratic dialogue is rather a stimulating, democratic facilitator than an expert who brings dogmatic knowledge. Van Rossem mentions several differences between a discussion and a dialogue, the first being ‘aimed at shaking out, it is rhetoric, aimed at decisions and actions, judging, attacking and defending, going for your own right, convincing, taking a standpoint, defensive or offensive in attitude, answering; it's speed and individualism oriented’. A dialogue would be ‘aimed at knowing via, be dialectic, aimed at insight in the value of judgements; suspending judgements, investigating and checking, wanting to know the truth, investigation, listening to yourself and others, attitude of taking the other’s point of view, questioning, slowness and community oriented’.
A next question could be: is any part of Islamic revelation suited for a Socratic dialogue?