Showing posts with label Duality. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Duality. Show all posts

Friday, December 14, 2018

Is Plato's Dialectic Dialogue Possible In Islam?

Islam does accept thinking in causality and search for explanation of phenomenons. Islam invites people to gain knowledge about any topic. However, Islam doesn't allow to self-invent and fill in unknowns, or to speculate about them without proof. If you don't know, you must simply admit that you don't know. 'Sophism', 'there's no truth and every person has their own truth', is an attitude seen as speculation without proof. Here at least, Qur'an al Kerim and Plato agree. There are many Qur'anic verses about 'the unseen', those aspects of life and the universe, that are outside observation's reach. Plato was interested in observed truth. He was interested in causal relations and the forces between different phenomenons. Those topics deserved contemplation and discussion. Exchange of views could lead to new ideas and conclusions.

My previous blog, 'Plato', mentioned a conversation about abstract topics, such as dialectics between finite and infinite, or between pleasure and wisdom. As an example, it gives a fairly good introduction to Plato's approach. Philosophic discussion was a systematic effort to explain and compare a theory, in prose. Qur'an al Kerim, however, isn't prose, it's poetry. It doesn't have the systematic structure of hypothesis - search for observed correlations - conclusion. And, it doesn't give literal quotes of specific people. For sure, there's nothing wrong, in Islam, to hold a theory built on relations between several concepts. And then, distinguish opposites, similarities, or differences between finite concepts as '30 degrees Celsius or Fahrenheit' versus infinite concepts as 'heat', 'cold'. However, Qur'an al Kerim takes their details more or less for granted. It's not the main focus of the Scripture. The Scripture does mention navigation systems, weather conditions, languages, countries, cities, and specific examples of creatures. But, it doesn't offer a calculation system; grammar rules; navigation measures, and such. Qur'an exhorts humans, however, to develop their measurement and observation systems and tools for their own use, though with an invisible backup of divine inspiration. On the other hand, Qur'an gives unambiguous texts about the one God and creator of the universe. Plato, however, sometimes mentions 'God' and sometimes, in plural, 'the gods'. Qur'an says, what we can and cannot observe, concerning God. Also this aspect is to be taken for granted by believers. It is the core of Islamic belief. If you want to believe, you can accept, that you won't be able to fully see Allah SWT. Full proof of His presence, hasn't been given to humans. For this very same reason, it isn't possible to impose belief in Allah SWT on those who reject it. You will, however, not take for granted, that you receive skills and tools to develop more tools; to use cattle, water, vegetables, and the knowledge to produce the things you need. Thinking about their consistent role in our lives, should make you thankful; these are divine gifts to us. To some extend, we've seen Plato agree with this. God is always present in Plato's dialectic dialogue, but He isn't central point of focus.

Examples of (the many) relevant Qur'anic verses are: 3:7&8; 6:97-100; 10:18-20; 16:8.

'He it is Who hath revealed unto thee (Muhammad) the Scripture wherein are clear revelations - they are the substance of the Book - and others (which are) allegorical. But those in whose hearts is doubt pursue, forsooth, that which is allegorical seeking (to cause) dissension by seeking to explain it. None knoweth its explanation save Allah. And those who are of sound instruction say: We believe therein; the whole is from our Lord; but only men of understanding really heed. (7) Our Lord! Cause not our hearts to stray after Thou hast guided us...' (3:7-8)

'And He it is Who hath set for you the stars that ye may guide your course by them amid the darkness of the land and the sea. We have detailed Our revelations for a people who have knowledge. (97) And He it is Who hath produced you from a single being, and (hath given you) a habitation and a repository. We have detailed Our revelations for a people who have understanding. (98) He it is Who sendeth down water from the sky, and therewith We bring forth buds of every kind; We bring forth the green blade from which We bring forth the thick-clustered grain; and from the date-palm, from the pollen thereof, spring pendant bunches; and (We bring forth) gardens of grapes, and the olive and the pomegranate, alike and unlike. Look upon the fruit thereof, when they bear fruit, and upon its ripening. Lo! herein verily are portents for a people who believe. (99) Yet they ascribe as partners unto Him the jinn, although He did create them, and impute falsely, without knowledge, sons and daughters unto Him. Glorified be He and high exalted above (all) that they ascribe (unto Him). (100)' (6:97-100)

'They worship besides Allah that which neither hurteth them nor profiteth them, and they say: These are our intercessors with Allah. Say: Would ye inform Allah of (something) that He knoweth not in the heavens or in the earth? Praised be He and high exalted above all that ye associate (with Him)! (18) Mankind were but one community; then they differed; and had it not been for a word that had already gone forth from thy Lord it had been judged between them in respect of that wherein they differ. (19) And they will say: If only a portent were sent down upon him from his Lord! Then say, (O Muhammad): The Unseen belongeth to Allah. So wait! Lo! I am waiting with you. (20)' (10:18-20)

'And (He has created) horses, mules and donkeys for you to ride and as an adornment; and He has created things of which ye have no knowledge.' (16:8)


Sources & further reading:
Quran Explorer
Works by Plato, The Internet Archieve